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NASA'S RESEARCH: VOLCANOES

 

 

Project: A Volcanic Plume Dispersion Monitoring and Prediction Capability

State: Hawaii

Sponsoring Program: Solid Earth & Natural Hazards/Pacific Disaster Ct.

Affiliation: University of Hawaii Manoa, NOAA/ERL

Principal Investigator: Businger, Steven

URL: http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/porter

Description: To mitigate the impact of post-eruptive plumes of volcanic aerosol on respiratory health and volcanic ash on aviation interests, we will develop the capability to monitor and predict the dispersion of volcanic plumes of aerosol and ash using a combination of satellite remote sensing and numerical trajectory and dispersion model approaches.

Strategic Importance:

  • Project will enhance the capability of Federal/State Agencies to predict serious vog episodes to mitigate aviation hazards and allow susceptible citizens to better prepare.
  • Project will supply the PDC and health and disaster managers with satellite data and probability dispersion forecasts following volcanic episodes.

Anticipated Benefits: Provide satellite data and model products of horizontal and vertical pollutant distributions as well as the probability that a specified pollutant concentration level will be exceeded at a location and time in the future.


Project: Analysis of Volcanotectonics Deformation and Volcanic Hazards using Topographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (TOPSAR) and SRTM, Mono Basin, California-Nevada

State: New York

Sponsoring Program: Solid Earth & Natural Hazards99

Affiliation: SUNY Buffalo

Principal Investigator: Bursik, Marcus


Description: Low to high precision measurements of deformed shorelines, coupled with dating by volcanic ash to understand the relationship between basin warping and volcanism.


Strategic Importance:

  • Improve eruption forecasting for the most explosive volcanoes in our most populous state
  • Gain new insight into the links between eruption and earthquakes
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Potential to save lives/property during future eruptions
  • Potential to apply techniques from Long Valley/Mono Craters region to other regions of the world

Project: Application of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)Data to Volcanic Hazard Mitigation

State: Michigan

Sponsoring Program: Solid Earth & Natural Hazards97

Affiliation: Michigan Technological University

Principal Investigator: Bluth, Gregg

Description: Development and analysis of complete Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database from 1979 - present, using Nimbus, Meteor, ADEOS, and Earth probe sensors.

Anticipated Benefits:

  • Prediction of atmospheric impact by global-scale volcanism
  • Predicting fates of volcanic gas clouds
  • Improve retrieval capabilities of ash and gas cloud mixes

Project: Development of an LI-Phase GPS Volcano Monitoring System

State: Colorado

Sponsoring Program: SENH96

Affiliation: UCAR UNAVCO, University of Miami, USGS

Principal Investigator: Meertens, Chuck

Description:

  • Develop an inexpensive, low-power single-frequency GPS crustal deformation and atmospheric measurement system
  • Deploy and operate these systems in networks at several volcanoes
  • Test and implement state-of-the-art radio and satellite communications and data management techniques
  • Investigate volcanic processes

Strategic Importance: The technologies developed in this project allow investigators to make detailed observations of volcanic, earthquake, oceanic, and atmospheric processes.

Anticipated Benefits:

Field Investigations Directly Supported By This Project:

  • Popocateptl Volcano, Mexico 4 sites installed (4 planned 2000) [with Univ. Miami, Univ. Nacional de Mexcio)
  • Mauna loa and Kilauea Volcanoes, Hawaii 12 (5) [U.S. Geological Survey]
  • Mt. Erebus Volcano, Antarctica, 2 (2) [New Mexico Inst. of Mining & Technology]
  • Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica (6 planned 2000 with VSAT Communications) [Univ. Miami, U.C. Santa Cruz, OVSICORI-UNA, Costa Rica]
Other Projects using this L1-system:
  • Long Valley Caldera (demonstration)[U.S. Geological Survey]
  • Taal Volcano , Philippines 12 [Indiana Univ., PHIVOLCS, Philippines]
  • Hayward Fault, California 2 (2) [U. C. Berkeley]
  • Oklahoma Atmospheric Tomography 14 (9) [UCAR, DOE]
  • Tide Gauge Monitoring DIVE 2 (2) [C. Wash. Univ.]

Project: Eruption Dynamics of Etna Volcano

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: JPL, IRECE-CNR, Istituto Int'l di Vulcanologia

Principal Investigator: Lundgren, Paul

Description: Volcanic eruptions pose a major hazard to millions of people worldwide. Surface deformation is an important measure of the eruptive potential of a volcano and the dynamics of its plumbing system. Etna volcano (Italy) is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and a prime test case.

Strategic Importance:

  • Develop inverse methods for analyzing volcano deformation derived from radar interferometry.
  • Quantify the criteria for successfully monitoring volcano deformation with satellite radar systems.
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Understand the dynamics of the volcano system.
  • Demonstrate the ability of InSAR to measure volcano deformation through time.
  • Demonstrate the potential for a future NASA radar mission

Project: GPS Measurement of Crustal Deformation

State: Indiana

Sponsoring Program: NSF

Affiliation: Indiana University, UNCAR/UNAVCO

Principal Investigator: Hamburger, Michael

Description: Deployment and testing of a new, state-of-the-art GPS volcano monitoring system around Taal Volcano, Luzon, Philippines.

Strategic Importance:

  • Develop new, low-cost system for volcano monitoring
  • Improved understanding of magma movement in active volcanic systems
  • Potential application for short-term prediction of volcanic eruptions
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Establish and operate a 3 station dual-frequency continuous GPS network at Taal
  • Establish a 12-station single-frequency GPS network
  • Develop near-real-time data analysis methods for high-precision single-frequency GPS networks

Project: GPS Monitoring of Costa Rican Volcanoes in Different Eruptive Stages

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH96

Affiliation: UC Santa Cruz

Principal Investigator: Schwartz, Susan


Project: INSAR as a Tool for Anticipating Large Volcanic Eruptions: Prospecting for Deep Magma Reservoirs

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: USGS

Principal Investigator: Dzurisin, Daniel

Description: Identify hazardous volcanoes where magma is accumulating relatively deep within the Earth by using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (INSAR) to map subtle ground-surface deformation

Principal Tasks:

  • Identify deforming volcanoes at selected sites in the western US, Central America, and Philippines
  • Develop numerical models of ground deformation to study its causes and assess the implications for volcano hazards
Strategic Importance:
  • Many of the world's most dangerous volcanoes are not adequately monitored. INSAR provides global coverage and has been shown to be an effective remote sensing tool for volcanoes
  • Although eruptions are local phenomena, their effects are sometimes global. Commercial aircraft of all nations are at risk from volcanic ash clouds
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Longer lead times for intensive monitoring, contingency planning, and warnings of hazardous volcanic eruptions
  • Demonstrate importance of satellite radar interferometry missions for volcano monitoring and natural hazards mitigation

Project: Mitigating Volcanic Hazards in Mexico

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: JPL

Principal Investigator: Abrams, Michael


Project: Monitoring of Volcanogenic CO2-Induced Tree Kills at Mammoth Mountain, California

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: California State University Sacramento

Principal Investigator: Hausback, Brian


Project: Monitoring the Hazards of Silicic Volcanoes with Remote Sensing

State: Arizona

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: Arizona State University, JPL

Principal Investigator: Fink, Jonathan
Description:
Estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic lava textures related to gas content and explosivity of eruptions These observations can be used to estimate the renewal of activity and hazards associated with explosive volcanism. The data will also be used to calibrate the spaceborne ASTER instrument.

Strategic Importance:

  • Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system using NASA's unique capabilities from the vantage points of space, aircraft, and in-situ platforms
  • Disseminate information about the Earth system and natural hazards
Anticipated Benefits:
  • A robust observational tool with anticipated hazard mitigation for active volcanism globally
  • Remote hazards monitoring lowers risk to observers

Project: Monitoring the Hazards of Silicic Volcanoes with Remote Sensing: Pac Rim II Proposal for MASTER and AIRSAR Data over Unzen Volcano, Japan

State: Arizona

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh, Arizona State University

Principal Investigator: Ramsey, Michael

Description: Collect airborne remote sensing data sets to evaluate recently-developed surface textural models. These can be used to estimate the renewal of activity and hazards associated with explosive volcanism. The data will also be used to calibrate the spaceborne ASTER instrument. Collect field GPS/sample data during flights Process data and produce surface maps Correlate results with ASTER data from Unzen as well as other recently-active sites

Strategic Importance:
Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system using NASA's unique capabilities from the vantage points of space, aircraft, and in-situ platforms. Disseminate information about the Earth system and natural hazards.

Anticipated Benefits:
A robust observational tool with anticipated hazard mitigation for active volcanism globally


Project: Post-eruption Hazards of Mt. Pinatubo, The Philippines

State: Hawaii

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: University of Hawaii Manoa

Principal Investigator: Mouginis-Mark, Peter

URL: http://www.higp.hawaii.edu/~pmm/Pinatubo.html

Description: Use multiple data sets to investigate the volcanic hazards associated with the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.
Analysis Approach:

  • Map mudflows using imaging radar data
  • Quantify topographic changes using TOPSAR
  • Conduct regional hazard assessment
  • Perform field work at Mt. Pinatubo and Taal
Strategic Importance:
  • First long-term study of the natural hazards associated with the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo
  • Multi-sensor approach develops new methodologies for volcano studies, including use of PacRim 2 data sets for temporal change research.
  • Strong collaboration with Filipino geologists at PHIVOLCS
Anticipated Benefits: Baseline knowledge of volcanic hazards that threaten millions of people on Luzon Island will be developed using current remote sensing data.


Project: Real-Time Predictive Modeling of Hazards from Mauna Loa Lava Flows

State: Hawaii

Sponsoring Program: SENH/PDC

Affiliation: Terra Systems Inc., Proxemy Res. Inc., USGS/HVO, University of Hawaii

Principal Investigator: Gradie, Jonathan

Description:

  • Develop, test and install at the Pacific Disaster Center (Maui) a real-time predictive physical model of Mauna Loa (Hawaii) lava flows.
  • Update & refine parts of the topographic land model for the Mauna Loa Volcano.
  • Provide 12 hr, 24 hr, and multi-day predictions of flow dimensions, advance rates and directions.
Strategic Importance:
  • Develop and apply NASA technology to improve our understanding of the dynamics of the solid earth with emphasis on methods for analyzing digital topography for mass movement hazards predicition.
  • Disseminate NASA technology in ways that are important to society, especially in the assessment and mitigation of natural hazards.
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Real-time predictive modeling of lava flow dynamics on Mauna Loa with applicability to other volcanoes including lahars, debris flows, and mudflows.
  • Provide the Pacific Disaster Center with the quantitative tools and training needed for assisting Civil Defense authorities in emergency situations.
  • Demonstrate that NASA science and technology from both Earth and Space Sciences can be used for important and practical applications.

Project: Remote Sensing Flight for Volcanic Hazards Assessment, Baja, CA, Mexico

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH96

Affiliation: Caltech, JPL, CSU Sarcramento, CICESE Mexico

Principal Investigator: Stock, Joann

Description: Use airborne remote sensing data (visible and infrared) to map products of young volcanic eruptions in two regions of Baja California.

Strategic Importance:

  • Rapidly map remote volcanic areas
  • Integrate airborne remote sensing data (MASTER) with satellite observations (TM, SPOT)
Anticipated Benefits: Identification of volcanic hazards and thus reduce volcanic risk to nearby populations and air traffic. 

Project: Remote Sensing of Dynamic Volcanic Processes

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH96

Affiliation: JPL

Principal Investigator: Realmuto, Vincent

Description: Study the dynamic processes of volcanic gas emission and lava flow emplacement through the analysis of time-series data collected with airborne remote sensing.

Data acquired during aircraft deployments to Hawaii (1988, 1995, 1996), and New Zealand (1996) were used in this investigation.

Anticipated Benefits: First 2-dimensional maps of the distribution of SO2 in Hawaiian volcanic plumes. Manuscript published in Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR).

First use of AES data to study volcanic SO2 plumes in Hawaii and New Zealand. Hawaii manuscript accepted for publication in JGR.

First animation of the emplacement of Hawaiian lava flows using IR image data. Video presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December, 1999.



Project: Space Geodetic Case Studies of Recent Volcanic Events in Alaska

State: Alaska

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: University of Alaska, USGS/EDC

Principal Investigator: Freymueller, Jeffrey

URL: http://www.aeic.alaska.edu/Input/jeff

Description: Examine four case studies of recent volcanic deformation events in Alaska using space geodesy, principally InSAR. Volcanic Events Studied:

  • Okmok 1997 (eruption)
  • Akutan 1996 (seismic swarm)
  • Westdahl 1992-2000 (significant aseismic uplift)
  • Pavlof 1996 (eruption)
  • Katmai 1992-2000 (significant aseismic uplift)
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Increase database of volcanic event case studies
  • Improve modeling techniques
  • Validate InSAR results with GPS

Project: The Use of Digital Topographic Data for the Assessment of Volcanic Hazards

State: Maryland

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: Proxemy Res. Inc.

Principal Investigator: Baloga, Stephen

Description:

  • Advance understanding of lahar propagation
  • Adapt theoretical lahar models to operate on discrete DEMs
  • Identify DEM resolution requirements for effective lahar hazard prediction
Strategic Importance: Develop and apply NASA technology to improve our understanding of the dynamics of the solid earth with emphasis on methods for analyzing digital topography for mass movement hazards predicition.

Anticipated Benefits:
  • Demonstrate the usefulness of NASA topographic remote sensing developments for the assessment of natural hazards.
  • Disseminate analysis methods to science community for use in predicting hazards from lahars, mud flows, debris flows, and similar mass movements.

Project: Topographic Monitoring Dynamics of Oceanic Islands and Ice-clad Volcanoes

State: Maryland

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: NASA/GSFC

Principal Investigator: Garvin, James


Project: Topographic Monitoring of Mt. Ranier

State: Maryland

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: NASA/GSFC

Principal Investigator: Garvin, James


Project: Transport Regimes of Explosive Eruption Plumes in the North Pacific

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: JPL

Principal Investigator: Pieri, David


Project: Validation and Analysis of SRTM and VCL Data over Tropical Volcanoes

State: Hawaii

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: University of Hawaii Manoa

Principal Investigator: Mouginis-Mark, Peter

URL: http://www.higp.hawaii.edu/~pmm/Pinatubo.html

Description:

  • Study volcanoes in Java and the Philippines using topographic data collected by SRTM and VCL.
  • Data validation will use TOPSAR and Star-3i aircraft data sets for Hawaii and E. Java
Strategic Importance:
  • Quantitative validation of space-based topographic data using aircraft data
  • Inter-comparison of two space-based methods (radar interferometry and laser altimetry)
  • Analysis of Star-3i data obtained via NASA's Commercial Data Buy
  • Basic volcanological research in this very poorly studied part of the world
Anticipated Benefits: First assessment of volcanic hazards in this remote part of the world. Results will benefit both volcanology and disaster mitigation communities.

Project: Volcanic Aerosol Sampling using Robotic Aircraft

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: JPL

Principal Investigator: Pieri, David


Project: Volcanic Hazard Products for the Pacific Data Center

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH/PDC

Affiliation: JPL, Michigan Tech University

Principal Investigator: Realmuto, Vincent

Description:

  • Provide the Pacific Disaster Center (PDC) with the siftware tools and training necessary to monitor volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosol emissions with satellite data. Such emissions lead to the formation of acidic volcanic fog (vog).
  • Convert scientific tools developed by the EOS Volcanology Team into operational mapping tools for use at the PDC.
  • Train PDC personnel in the use of the software tools.
  • Test and verify the output of the mapping tools using MODIS data acquired over Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.
  • Combine mapping of the Kilauea gas and aerosol plumes with the mesoscale wind forecast model plumes developed at the University of Hawaii.

    Anticipated Benefits:
  • Ability to track vog from origins as volcanic So2 gas emissions to conversion to sulfate aerosols and transport by regional wind patterns.
  • Ability to forecast vog hazards based on volcanic emissions and wind forecasts.
  • Better understanding of the conversion of SO2 gas to sulfate aerosols in volcnic plumes.

Project: Volcano Plume Monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

State: Florida

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: University of Miami

Principal Investigator: Dixon, Jacqueline


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