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NASA'S RESEARCH: TECTONICS AND CLIMATE INTERACTION

 

 

Project: Debris Flow Hazard Assessment, Pico de Orizaba, Mexico

State: New York

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: SUNY Buffalo, UNAM Mexico City

Principal Investigator: Sheridan, Michael

URL: http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/~mfs

Description: The objective of this research is to understand the risk related to avalanches at Pico de Orizaba, the largest volcano in North America.

Conduct 4 types of analyses:

  • Use AVIRIS and TM data to create a geologic map
  • Publish a volcanic risk map
  • Determine the source zones for volcanic avalanches
  • Construct a model for catastrophic edifice collapse.
Strategic Importance:
  • Develop and validate remote sensing applications within U.S. and Mexican universities
  • Enable the productive use of ESE science and technology in the reduction of risk related to natural disasters
Anticipated Benefits: Reduce the loss of life and property around volcanoes by the application of NASA science and technology.

Project: Landslide Hazard in Response to Short-term Climate Change

State: Tennessee

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: University of Memphis

Principal Investigator: Ellis, Michael

Description: Map storm-induced landslides using SAR data to calibrate a NASA-developed landscape evolution model to then predict the influence of short-term climate change on landslide hazards.

Strategic Importance:
Landslides represent one of the most costly natural hazards faced by the US population. Damaging landslides are often caused by large storms, and the severity of storms is closely related to short-term climate changes ~ remember El Niño of 1997-98. Any understanding of how short-term climate change might affect the distribution of landslides will be useful to policy makers and to a variety of scientific communities.

Anticipated Benefits:
Testable models and a clearer understanding of how short-term climate change might affect landslide hazards.


Project: Landslide Mechanisms and Hazard Assessment in Mountain Regions of the Pacific Rim

State: New York

Sponsoring Program: SENH

Affiliation: Columbia University, University of Cambridge, University of Maryland

Principal Investigator: Jeffrey Weissel

URL: http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu

Description:
Use SAR+ optical data to characterize landslide geometry, distribution.

Anticipated Benefits:
Insights into likely landslide geometry for storms, quakes. Strategies for minimizing loss of life by landslides.


Project: Landslide Modeling and Forecasting Utilizing Remotely Sensed Data (LANDMOD)

State: District of Columbia

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: National Air & Space Museum, University of Portsmouth UK, University of Ferrara

Principal Investigator: Bulmer, Mark

Description: Examine the potential of remote sensing in the forecasting of landslide events

Strategic Importance:

  • LANDMOD Mission A: Test the utility of SAR interferometry for measuring movement on LARGE volume landslides
  • LANDMOD Mission B: Assess whether SAR interferometric products are a cost effective means of landslide hazard monitoring today, or are likely to be in the near future

Anticipated Benefits:

  • Develop a comprehensive methodology for the use of SAR interferometry in monitoring large-scale slope movements
  • Develop a new model for the initial stages of landslide movement linking interferometry, detailed geomorphological studies and probabilistic models

Project: Scaling and Cross-Correlation Studies of Landslides

State: New York

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: Cornell University, IRPI Perugia Italy

Principal Investigator: Turcotte, Donald

Description:

  • To better understand the landslide hazard.
  • The applicability of a power-law frequency-area relation will be better determined.
  • The use of the occurrence of small landslides to forecast the occurrence of larger landslides will be studied.
Strategic Importance:
  • Landslides constitute a major natural hazard throughout the planet.
  • As population has moved into landslide prone areas, the risks have increased greatly.
  • Landslides into dammed reservoirs constitue a major hazard as indicated by the large loss of life when this has occurred in Italy.
Anticipated Benefits: Our basic objective is to provide a quantitative reliable predictive capability for large landslides based on the occurrence of small landslides.

Project: Thermal IR Remote Sensing for Reducing Landslide Hazards in Southern California

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: Bing Yen & Assoc.

Principal Investigator: Sabins, Edward


Project: Utility of Thermal IR Imagery for Slope Hazard Mapping

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: CA Dept. of Conservation

Principal Investigator: Real, Chuck

Description:

  • Detection and mapping of existing landslides
  • Mapping landslide hazard potential
  • Differentiating lithology of terrain
  • Mapping areas of ground saturation
Strategic Importance:
  • Evaluate effectiveness of thermal remote sensing for mapping landslide hazards
  • Implement thermal remote sensing technology in
  • California's Seismic Hazard Mapping Program and other landslide hazard mapping efforts
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Expedite inventory of existing landslides
  • Improve accuracy of hazard mapping
  • Demonstrate that NASA science and technology can facilitate slope hazard assessment and risk management

Project: An Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Study of Subsidence in Houston Texas

State: Texas

Sponsoring Program: Solid Earth & Natural Hazards96

Affiliation: University of Texas at Austin, JPL

Principal Investigator: Tapley, Byron

Description:

  • Subsidence bowls in northwest and west Houston
  • Linear phase features corresponding to differential subsidence across growth faults
  • Previously unidentified subsidence bowl near Seabrook
  • Incomplete subsidence maps due to C-band decorrelation in non-urban areas
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Continued subsidence measurements critical for planning future water utilization strategies
  • L-band interferometry would provide more complete subsidence maps critical for the monitoring and prediction of Houston-area subsidence

Project: Application of High Resolution Digital Topography to Hazards in California

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: JPL,USGS

Principal Investigator: Blom, Ronald

URL: http://www-radar.jpl.nasa.gov/s323/IntSARapps/LH-Belridge_GRL.html

Description: Relatively little use of digital topographic data and remote sensing data has been made by agencies and organizations responsible for hazards planning, evaluation, mitigation and response. We seek to improve this situation by actively working with the California Seismic Safety Commission to learn how to integrate space technologies into their processes. California is relatively advanced in planning and hazards mitigation. Lessons learned will be extensible to other areas as global SRTM topo and other data become available.

Strategic Importance:

  • Rising population density and development increases cost of and vulnerability to natural disasters worldwide.
  • Topographic & remote sensing data can help in all phases of hazards cycle; planning, mitigation, and response.
  • Advancing computer technology, literacy, and the internet enable much greater use of space technologies in hazards work.
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Apply NASA data and technologies to important problem.
  • Develop means of providing useful data to users.
  • Expand methods as appropriate to other regions/agencies. Global data sets such as SRTM have great potential in hazards work.

Project: Application of Radar (SAR) Interferometry to Monitoring of Subsidence in Petroleum Producing Areas

State: California

Sponsoring Program: Solid Earth & Natural Hazards97

Affiliation: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Chevron

Principal Investigator: Blom, Ronald

URL: http://www-radar.jpl.nasa.gov/s323/IntSARapps/LH-Belridge_GRL.html


Project: Development of Surface Deformation Map Products for Humid, Urban Areas using Radar Interferometry

State: Texas

Sponsoring Program: EOCAP

Affiliation: Shell Exploration and Production Technology Company

Principal Investigator: Biegert, Ed


Project: Identification and Mapping of Expansive Clay Soils in the Western US Using Field Spectroscopy and AVIRIS Data

State: Colorado

Sponsoring Program: SENH96

Affiliation: University of Colorado-Boulder, Colorado School of Mines

Principal Investigator: Goetz, Alexander

URL: http://cires.colorado.edu/cses/

Description: Develop a spectroscopic method to understand and map swelling soil potential that can be used for in situ determination of swelling soil potential in construction sites. Extend to altitude using ER-2 and AVIRIS.


Strategic Importance:

  • World-wide expansive clays and clay-shales cause billions of dollars of damage every year, more than all natural hazards combined
  • Colorado Front Range has history of problems with construction, 35% of all structures require remediation
  • Undersampling of sites because of high costs of standard techniques leads to differential heave problems
Anticipated Benefits: Much more rapid and less costly soil sample analysis technique

Project: Investigate Uses of SAR for Detecting Land Subsidence in the San Joaquin/Sacramento River Delta, Central California

State: Colorado

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: Vexcel Corp.

Principal Investigator: Cohen, David

URL: http://www.vexcel.com


Project: Land Surface Variability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: Differential Interferometric SAR

State: Colorado

Sponsoring Program: SENH96

Affiliation: Vexcel Inc.

Principal Investigator: Curlander, John


Project: Monitoring of Subsidence and Rebound Due to Groundwater Level Variations in Santa Clara Valley, California with SAR Interferometry

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: USGS, UC Berkeley, Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Jose CA

Principal Investigator: Galloway, Devin

URL: http://water.wr.usgs.gov/rep/fs05100/insar2.pdf

Description: Measure the magnitudes and patterns of land surface elevation changes associated with ground-water discharge and recharge to the aquifer system in Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"). Determine the seasonal and longer-term (<5 yr) patterns of subsidence and uplift Compare InSAR results with other geodetic data Determine hydrogeologic controls

Strategic Importance:

  • Develop and validate InSAR applications to monitor the deformation of aquifer systems
  • Develop a tool to asist in the optimal management of our ground-water resources

Anticipated Benefits:

  • Displacement maps of Santa Clara Valley showing areas susceptiable to subsidence
  • New insights into the properties of the aquifer system and ground-water flow in Santa Clara Valley
  • Demonstrate that space-borne remote sensing technology can be applied to the management of our ground-water resources

Project: Relative and Absolute Sea Level Change in the Gulf of Mexico: A Study of Rapid Land Subsidence

State: Florida

Sponsoring Program: SENH97

Affiliation: University of Miami

Principal Investigator: Harrison, Christopher


Project: Continental Topography and River Height Variations from Overland Radar Altimetry

State: Maryland

Sponsoring Program: Solid Earth & Natural Hazards97

Affiliation: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Principal Investigator: Frey, Herbert


Project: Estimation of Flood Hazards through Remote Sensing and Modeling

State: Washington

Sponsoring Program: SENH96

Affiliation: University of WA

Principal Investigator: Lettenmaier, Dennis

Description:
Assimilate satellite-derived data into a macroscale hydrological model for improved flood hazard prediction and reservoir management.

Strategic Importance:

  • Mitigation of catastrophic damage in the Midwest due to frozen soil-amplified runoff as in the floods of the winter of 1996/1997
  • Potential for advance warning and prediction for use in flood control
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Evaluation of utility of microwave satellite data for hydrologic model updating
  • Demonstrate that NASA science and technology can be used for catastrophic runoff predictions to prevent loss of life and property

Project: Flood Forecasting using a Regional Scale Atmosphere/Land Surface Modeling System

State: Maryland

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: Austin College, NASA/GSFC

Principal Investigator: Baker, R. David

Description: Conduct mesoscale numerical simulations to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for flash flooding

Strategic Importance:

  • Improve real-time forecasting of flash floods
  • Utilize remotely sensed products from NASA missions such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to address an important societal issue
Anticipated Benefits:
  • Validate the regional atmosphere/land-surface modeling system, MM5-PLACE
  • Assess the need for high quality soil moisture observations to predict heavy precipitation events
  • Demonstrate that NASA science and technology can be used for improved weather and flood forecasting

Project: Flood Plain Modeling Based on Data Fusion of Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Laser Altimetry

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: JPL, University of Texas at Austin

Principal Investigator: Van Zyl, Jakob

Description: Provide input fields of topography as well as the state of soil moisture and vegetation cover for a hydrological model to enable more accurate prediction of flooding events and flood extent in riverine and coastal floodplains.

Three phases of development:

  • Acquire in-situ and remotely sensed data
  • Finalize vegetation height estimation algorithm
  • Incorporate fields into hydrologic model
Strategic Importance:
  • Will provide a scientific basis for flood prediction in floodplains and coastal lowlands
  • Will develop state of the art remote sensing techniques and inversion algorithms to provide input fields required by a physically based hydrologic model
Anticipated Benefits: Operational monitoring of input fields, coupled with the predictive capabilities of the hydrologic model, will allow disaster agencies to predict the occurrence and extent of flooding, thereby saving lives and property. 

Project: Globally Consistent Topographic Characterization of Large River Floodplains based on the SRTM DEM

State: California

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: UCSB, UCLA

Principal Investigator: Mertes, Leal


Project: Remote Sensing for Debris Flooding Hazard Assessment in Arid Regions

State: Arizona

Sponsoring Program: SENH99

Affiliation: University of Arizona

Principal Investigator: Baker, Victor


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